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Home > Glossary of Foundry Terms > W

Glossary of Foundry Terms - W

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Warm Box Process

Coremaking method in which the corebox is warm when the core sand is introduced. The warmth of the corebox initiates curing but does not complete it. Cores finish curing outside the corebox (sometimes in a separate dryer), allowing for faster core production cycles than with the Hot Box process. Cores created using this process must be solid- they cannot be shell cores. See Cores, Core Box, Hot Box Process.


Deformation other than contraction that develops in a casting between solidification and room temperature; also, distortion occurring during annealing, stress relieving, and high-temperature service.


A casting defect resulting from erosion of sand by metal flowing over the mold or corded surfaces. They appear as rough spots and excess metal on the casting surface. Also call cuts. See Cut, Defect.

Washburn Core

Thin core which constricts the riser at the point of attachment to (Neck-Down Core) the casting. See Casting, Cores, Risers.


Refractory coating applied to molds and cores to provide protection against penetration from molten metal. See Cores, Molds.

Water Glass

Sodium silicate (an inorganic binder system), a viscous liquid which when mixed with powered fireclay forms a refractory cement.

Water Test

To subject a casting to water pressure in such a manner that any porous areas will show leakage.


Class of substances of plant, animal, or mineral origin, insoluble in water, partly soluble in alcohol, either, etc., and miscible in all proportions with oils and fats. They consist of esters, free fatty acids, free alcohols, and higher hydrocarbons. Common waxes are beeswax, bayberry, paraffin wax, ozokerite, ceresin, and carnauba. Their mixtures are formed into rods and sheets and used for forming vents in cores and molds, repairing patterns, etc.

Wax Pattern

A precise duplicate, allowing for shrinkage, of the casting and required gates, usually formed by pouring or injecting molten wax into a die or mold. Wax molded around the parts to be welded by a termite welding process.

Weak Sand

Sand lacking in the proper amount of bond. See Bond.


The undesired deterioration of a component by the removal of material from its surface.


Weld Bead

The built-up portion of a fusion weld, formed either from the filler metal or the melting of the parent metal.


A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding, which includes gas, arc, and resistance welding, requires that the parent metals be melted.

Welding Electrode

A metal or alloy in rod or wire forms used in electric arc welding to maintain the arc and at the same time supply molten metal or alloy at the point where the weld is to be accomplished.

Welding Flash

Skin exposed too long to the ultraviolet rays of welding or melting arcs will burn as in a sunburn. Though temporary blindness can result, it is not permanent, as is popularly believed.

Welding Shielded-Arc

Electric-arc welding in which the molten weld metal is protected from the atmosphere. An inert gaseous atmosphere or fluxcoated electrode may be employed.

Welding Stress

That stress resulting from localized heating and cooling of metal during welding.

Welding, Arc

Welding accomplished by using an electric arc that can be formed between a metal or carbon electrode and the metal being welded; between two separate electrodes, as in atomic hydrogen welding or between the two separate pieces being welded, as in flash welding.

Welding, Autogenous

Method of uniting two pieces of metal by melting their edges together without solder or any added welding metal, as by the thermite process that employs a medium of finely divided aluminum powder and oxide or iron by which a temperature of some 2982.2°C (5400°F) is obtained.

Well (Cupola)

Lower portion of a cupola, between the sand bottom and the slaghole, which forms a reservoir for the molten metal. See Cupola.

Wet Scrubber (Gas Washer)

In air pollution control, a liquid (usually water) spray device for collecting pollutants in escaping foundry gases.

Wetting Agent

Surface-active agent which by reducing surface tension of the wetting liquid causes a material to be wetted more easily.

Whirl Gate

Gating system in which the metal enters a circular reservoir at a tangent, and so whirls around, leaving dirt and slag behind before passing into the mold cavity.


Small openings from isolated mold cavities to allow gases to escape easily. See Vent.

White Cast Iron

Cast iron in which substantially all the carbon is present in the form of iron carbide, and which has a white fracture.

Widmanstatten Structure

Plate-like structure seen in grains of steel in the course of transformation of a solid solution.

Wild Steel

Steel which has not been completely deoxidized and reacts violently after casting due to liberation of gases of cooling.

Wood Flour

Finely ground wood, usually hardwood, low in resin.


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Atlas Foundry Company, Inc.
601 N. Henderson Avenue
Marion, IN 46952-3348
Telephone: (765) 662-2525 • Fax: (765) 662-2902
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