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Glossary of Foundry Terms - F
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The joining, usually by welding, of two or more parts to produce a finished
assembly. The components of the assembly may be a combination of cast and
Refractory material applied to the face of a mold. See Mold,
Specially prepared molding sand used in the mold adjacent to the pattern
to produce a smooth casting surface. See Molding Sand.
A cheek used in making a three-part mold in a two-part mold.
The loss of load-bearing ability of a material under repeated load
application, as opposed to a single load.
A fracture starting from a nucleus where there is an abnormal
concentration of cyclic stress, and propagating through the metal. Surface is
smooth and frequently shows concentric markings with a nucleus as the center.
Limit (Endurance Limit)
Maximum stress that a material will endure without
failure for an infinite number of load cycles.
Maximum stress that a material will endure without failure for a
specified number of load cycles.
A reservoir of molten metal provided to compensate for contraction of
metal as it solidifies, by the feeding down of liquid metal to prevent voids.
Also called a riser. See Riser.
The volume of molten metal from which a
casting feeds as it shrinks (contracts) during solidification.
Sometimes referred to as a riser. A vertical channel in the mould (part of
the runner system) which forms the reservoir of molten metal necessary to
compensate for losses due to shrinkage as the metal solidifies. See Riser.
Supplying additional molten metal to a casting to make up for volume shrinkage
during casting solidification. See Solidification.
Red iron oxide, Fe2O3, commonly available as
hematite ore. Used in ground form in cores and molds to increase hot
Iron practically carbon-free. It forms a body-centered-cubic-lattice and may
hold in solution considerable amounts of silicon, nickel, or phosphorus; hence
the term is also applied to solid solutions in which alpha or delta iron is the
Steels in which ferrite is the predominant phase. These steels are
Alloys consisting of certain elements combined with iron, and used to
increase the amount of such elements in ferrous metals and alloys. In some
cases the ferroalloys may serve as deoxidizers. See Alloy.
The ability to become highly magnetic and have the ability to retain a
permanent magnetic moment. The elementary magnetic dipoles inside the domain
are all oriented in a direction parallel to each other.
An alloy of iron and phosphorus containing about 70% iron and 25% phosphorus.
Pressure induced by a head of liquid iron or steel.
A British term meaning the process of removing all runners and risers and
cleaning off adhering sand from the casting. Also refers to the removal of slag
from the inside of the cupola and in Britain to repair the bed of an open
hearth. See Casting, Risers, Runners.
A concave corner piece, often a preformed strip of leather or wax, used on
foundry patterns used at the intersection of two surfaces to round out a sharp
The filtering out of unwanted gases in the casting, at
pouring off portion of making the casting.
thin projection of metal from the casting, formed as a result of imperfect mold
or core joints. See Casting, Core.
Sand grain sizes substantially smaller than the predominating grain sized in
a molding sand; also material remaining on 200- and 270-mesh sieves and pan
after tests for grain size and distribution.
Amount of metal allowed for machining.
The hand work on a mold after the pattern has been withdrawn. See Mold, Pattern.
The amount of stock left on the surface of a casting for machining.
A symbol (f, f1, f2, etc.) appearing on the line of a drawing that
represents the edge of the surface of the casting to be machined or otherwise
Production welding carried out in order to ensure the agreed quality
of the casting.
Difference Analysis (FDA)
A computerized numerical modeling approach for
solving differential equations. Used primarily in solving heat transfer and
Element Analysis (FEA)
A computerized numerical analysis technique used for
solving differential equations to primarily solved mechanical engineering
problems relating to stress analysis.
Brick made of refractory clay or other material which resists high
A type of clay which is resistant to high temperatures.
See Pencil Core.
A surface hardening process involving localized flame heating to
above the austenite transformation temperature, Ac3, followed by quenching. See
Term used in connection with zinc-bearing alloys, particularly manganese
bronze, to denote evolution of zinc oxide fumes during melting.
Thin fin or web of metal extending from the casting along the joint line due
to the cope and drag not matching completely or where core and coreprint do not
A metal or wood rigid frame without top and without fixed bottom used to hold
the sand of which a mold is formed; usually consisting of two parts, cope and
drag. See Cope, Drag, Mold.
A reinforcing member attached within either half of a flask to assist in
holding the rammed sand in position. See Flask, Ramming.
A device for holding together the cope, drag, and cheek of a flask.
Guides used to accurately align the match plate pattern in the
flask and flask to flask location.
Assure proper alignment of cope and drag molds after the pattern is
withdrawn. See Cope, Drag, Mold, Pattern.
A removable flask which can be stripped vertically from the mold. See
A hinged flask which can be removed from the mold after completion.
Flask which remains on the mold. See Flask.
Wide gate with narrow opening into the
mold. It is used to pour thin, flat castings. See Gate.
A pattern with a flat surface at the joint of the mold. It lies wholly within
the drag or cope, and this joint of the mold is a plane surface. See Cope, Drag, Mold, Pattern.
Property of a foundry sand mixture which enables it to fill pattern recesses
and move in any direction against pattern surfaces under pressure.
Large vent, usually located at the high point of a mold cavity. In addition
to letting air and mold gases escape during a pour, the flow-off fills with
metal and is allowed to run or flow during the final stage of pouring. See Mold Cavity.
Ability of molten metal to flow readily; usually measured by the length of a
standard spiral casting.
To impart fluid like properties to powders or sands e.g. fluidized beds.
Application of penetrating fluorescent liquid to a part, then
removing the excess from the surface, which is then exposed to ultraviolet
light. Cracks show up as fluorescent lines.
Any substance used to promote fusion. Also any material which reduces,
oxidizes, or decomposes impurities so that they are carried off as slags or
A board shaped to the parting line of the mold. See Mold,
The art and science of melting and casting of metals and alloys into useful
objects that serve the needs of industry. It is better known as metal casting.
The act, process, or art of casting metals. The buildings
and works for casting metals.
A vessel for holding molten metal and conveying it from cupola to the
molds. See Cupola, Mold.
Metal in the form of sprues, gates, runners, risers and scrapped
castings, with known chemical composition that are returned to the furnace for
remelting. Sometimes referred to as "revert ".
Foundry sand is used in creating cores and
molds used in the casting of iron, steel, copper and aluminum products. In
construction, steel and iron beams-known as girders-are used in the building of
bridges, large office buildings and some homes. Copper pipes, aluminum supports
and even the hardware and hand tools used in construction had their origins at
the foundry. Foundry sand is the second largest industrial use of sand in terms
of tons consumed. See Casting, Core, Molds.
On Board (F.O.B.)
This is a historical transportation industry term. It deals
with who pays the shipping charges on goods produced. The term is a pricing
agreement which does not include the carriage charges, from the seller, to the
buyer of a product. The seller absorbs the freight charges, the carriage
charges, the destination charges, the shipping charges, etc., whatever you wish
to call the expense to move the material from the seller to the buyer. There
may well be third party billing of these carriage charges. The seller may well
have incorporated these charges in the selling price, but does not invoice the
buyer for that fee. Remember..."Free On Board," equates to a
remembrance thought factor of ..."Free Onto The Buyer"...or F.O.B. as the
early traffic managers so coined the term.
Term used to denote the solidification process. See Solidification.
The displacement and/or detachment of metallic particles from a surface
as a consequence of being in contact with another moving component.
Used in hydraulics as an analog to the Reynolds number. It is the
ratio of inertial forces to gravitational forces.
Generic term for a family of chemical compounds including furfural and
furfuryl alcohol sued as binders for core sands.
Change from a solid to a fluid state caused by application of heat.
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