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Home > Glossary of Foundry Terms > E

Glossary of Foundry Terms - E

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Eddy Current Testing

The detection of discontinuities by observation of the interaction between electromagnetic fields and metals.

Ejector Marks

Marks left on die castings by the ejector pins, which may be raised or depressed from the surface of the casting. See Die Casting, Ejector Pins.

Ejector Pins

Movable pins in pattern dies which help remove patterns from the die.

Ejector Plate

Movable plate beneath a shell molding pattern containing the pins for lifting or ejecting the hardened, resin-bonded shell mold from the pattern. See Shell Molding.

Elastic Limit

Maximum stress that a material will withstand without permanent deformation. See Yield Strength.


The property of recovering original shape and dimensions upon removal of a deforming force.

Electric Arc Furnace

A crucible furnace that uses an electric arc, similar to an electric arc welding operation, to melt metal. See Crucible Furnace.

Electrical Precipitator

In air pollution control, the use of electrodes in stack emissions emitting high voltage; particles 0.1 micron and smaller can be attached and collected at discharge electrode.

Electrochemical Corrosion (Contact Corrosion, Electrolytic Corrosion, Galvanic Corrosion)

Localized corrosion from exposure of an assembly of dissimilar metals in contact or coupled with one another, i.e., electrochemical action.


Compressed graphite or carbon cylinder or rod used to conduct electric current in electric arc furnaces, arc lamps, carbon arc welding, etc.

Electron Microprobe Analyzer

An instrument for selective analysis of a microscopic area, in which an electron beam bombards the point of interest in Vacuo at a given energy level. Intensity of backscatter is measured to interpret which chemical elements are present, and by scanning a large area the microprobe can analyze chemical composition and indicate the distribution of an element.


A measure of a material's ductility. Given in a percent, it indicates the amount a material will deform before permanent deformation. The higher the number, the more ductile. See Ductility.


Loss of ductility of a metal due to chemical or physical change. See Acid Embrittlement, Ductility, Hydrogen Embrittlement.

Endothermic Reaction

The reaction which occurs with absorption of heat. See Exothermic Reaction.

End-Quench Hardenability Test

A standardized method for comparing the hardenability of different steels.

Engineering Strain(e)

The average linear strain, obtained by dividing the elongation of the length of the specimen by the original gage length.

Engineering Stress(es)

The load divided by the original area.

EPC (Expendable Pattern Casting)

See Lost Foam Process.



Dynamic condition of balance between atomic movements where the resultant is zero, a stable condition and the condition appears to be one of rest rather than change.


The science which deals with the interaction between people, their work place and environment. It also considers the physiology of workers in the design of tools, equipment, and the work methods needed.


Abrasion of metal or other material by liquid or gas, usually accelerated by pressure of solid particles of matter in suspension, and sometimes by corrosion.

Erosion Scab

Casting defect occurring where the metal has been agitated, boiled, or has partially eroded away the sand, leaving a solid mass of sand and metal at that particular spot.


A solution for chemical etching the polished surface of a metal specimen to reveal macro- or micro-structures.

Ethyl Silicate

Light brown liquid consisting predominantly of tetraethyl silicate with some polysilicates which can be hydrolized with water to form alcohol and silicic acid. Used as a bonding agent in investment molding. See Investment Casting.


The alloy which has the lowest melting point possible for a given composition. See Alloy.

Eutectic Reaction

Reaction in which a liquid solution solidifies or transforms at constant temperature to form a solid mass made up of tow kinds of crystals.


A solid solution of any series which cools without change to its temperature of final composition.

Evaporation Pattern Casting / Expendable Pattern Casting / EPC

See Lost Foam Process.


Formed by or characterized by heat reaction as in oxidation.

Exothermic Reaction

Chemical reactions involving the liberation, or production, of heat. See Endothermic Reaction.

Expansion Scabs

Rough thin layers of metal partially separated from the body of the casting by a thin layer of sand, and held in place by a thin vein of metal.

Expansion, Sand

Dimensional increase that sand undergoes when subjected to elevated temperature conditions.

Expendable Pattern

In investment molding, the wax or plastic pattern that is left in the mold and later melted and burned out. This also called a disposable pattern.


An instrument used in the testing of metals to measure small increments of deformation.

External Chills

Various materials of high heat capacity such as metals, graphite, etc., forming parts of the walls of the mold cavity to promote rapid heat extraction from molten metal. See Mold Cavity.


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Atlas Foundry Company, Inc.
601 N. Henderson Avenue
Marion, IN 46952-3348
Telephone: (765) 662-2525 • Fax: (765) 662-2902
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