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Home > Glossary of Foundry Terms > C

Glossary of Foundry Terms - C

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Degrees Centigrade or Celsius.

C or Croning Process

See Shell Molding.

Computer Aided Design (CAD)

The computer software/hardware used to produce part drawings electronically.


Abbreviation for Computer Aided Engineering.

Calcium Boride

An alloy of calcium and boron corresponding (when pure) to the formula CaB6, containing about 61% boron and 39% calcium, and used in deoxidation and degasification of nonferrous metals and alloys.

Calcium Carbide

A grayish-black, hard crystalline substance made in the electric furnace by fusing lime and coke. Addition of water to calcium carbide forms acetylene and a residue of slaked lime. See Electric Furnace.

Calcium Molybdate

A crushed product containing 40-50% molybdenum, 23-25% lime, 3% iron maximum and 5-10% silica, used to add molybdenum to iron and steel produced in the open hearth, air furnace, or electric furnace. See Open Hearth, Air Furnace, Electric Furnace.

Calcium Silicon

An alloy of calcium, silicon, and iron containing 28-35% Ca, 60-65% Si, and 6% Fe, maximum used as a deoxidizer and degasser for steel and cast-iron; sometimes called calcium silicide.

Calcium Wired Injection

Wire feeding of steel clad calcium wire into molten bath to provide favorable kinetics for inclusion modification.


An alloy composed of 10-14% calcium, 8-12% aluminum, and 50-53% silicon, sued for degasifying and deoxidizng steel. See Alloy.


An alloy containing 17-19% calcium, 8-10% manganese, 55-60% silicon, and x0 to 14% iron, used as a cavenger for oxides, gases, and nonmetallic impurities in steel. See Alloy.


Acronym for Computer-Aided Manufacturing.


Deviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest deviation of side edge from a straight line.

Captive Foundry

A foundry that is an operating part of a manufacturing plant, and whose production products, castings, are used within the plant as parts of finished objects.


A compound of carbon with a more positive element, such as iron. Carbon unites with iron to form iron carbide or cementite, Fe3C. See Cementite.


Element occurring as diamond and as graphite. Carbon reduces many metals from their oxides when heated with the latter, and small amounts of it greatly affect the properties of iron. Though classed as a nonmetallic, metallurgically, like boron, it is treated as a metal.

Carbon Boil

Refers to the practice of adding oxidizing agents such as iron ore or oxygen to molten steel in the furnace to react with carbon and create a boiling action. In addition to reducing the carbon content, it removes occluded gasses such as hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. See Boil.

Carbon Dioxide Process (Silicate process, Schmidt Philip process)

A process for hardening molds or cores in which carbon dioxide gas is blown through dry clay-free silica sand to precipitate silica in the form of a gel from the sodium silicate binder. See Silica Sand.

Carbon Equivalent

Relationship of total carbon, silicon, and phosphorus in gray iron, expressed by the formula CE=TC%+Si%/3+P%/3.

Carbon Sand

A molding aggregate consisting principally of carbon (graphite) granules.

Carbon Steel

Steel which owes its properties chiefly to various percentages of carbon without substantial amounts of other alloying elements; also known as ordinary steel or straight carbon or plain carbon steel.

Carbon, Combined

The carbon in iron or steel which is combined with other elements and therefore is not in the free state as graphite or as temper carbon. See Temper Carbon.

Carbonitriding (Nicarbing)

A process in which a ferrous alloy is case hardened by first being heated in a gaseous atmosphere of such composition that the alloy absorbs carbon and nitrogen simultaneously, and then being cooled at a rate that will produce desired properties.


A form of case hardening that produces a carbon gradient inward from the surface, enabling the surface layer to be hardened by either quenching directly from the carbonizing temperature or by cooling to room temperature, then reaustenitizing and quenching.



The surface layer of an iron-base alloy which has been suitably altered in composition and can be made substantially harder than the interior or core by heat treatment.

Case Hardening

A process of hardening a ferrous alloy so that the surface layer or case is made substantially harder than the interior or core. Typically case hardening process are carburizing, carbonitriding, and nitriding. See Carburizing, Carbonitriding, and Nitriding.

Cast Iron

Iron shaped using any number of casting processes. Gray Iron is by far the oldest and most common form of cast iron. As a result, it is assumed by many to be the only form of cast iron and the terms "cast iron" and "gray iron" are used interchangeably. Generic term for a series of alloys of iron, carbon, and silicon, in which the carbon is in excess of the amount which can be retained in solid solution in austenite at the eutectic. When cast iron contains a specially added element or elements in amounts sufficient to produce a measurable modification of the physical properties under consideration, it is called alloy cast iron. Silicon, manganese, sulfur, and phosphorus, as normally obtained from raw materials, are not considered as alloy additions. Term used to describe a series of ferrous alloys containing over 1.74% of carbon. See Alloy, Gray Iron, Iron.

Cast Plate

Metal plate, usually aluminum, cast with the cope pattern on one side and the drag pattern on the other. See Matchplate.

Casting (verb)

A process where molten metal is poured into a mold and solidification is allowed to take place. The act of pouring metal.

Casting (noun)

A metal object obtained by pouring molten metal into a mold. The metal shape, exclusive of gates and risers, that is obtained as a result of pouring metal into a mold. See Gate, Riser.

Casting Defect

A defect in a casted object or casting.

Casting Drawing

An engineering drawing which depicts the shape and size of a part to be cast.

Casting Industry

Is the sixth largest Industry in North America, behind Petroleum, Agriculture, Lumber, Mining, Textile, Transportation according to data supplied by the AFS. The Casting Industry is the making of products from metals, earth, glass, etc. See AFS.

Casting Layout

A check of dimensions against applicable drawings and specifications.

Casting Porosity

The porosity of a casting artifact.

Casting Process

A forming process in which a molten metal, polymer, or other heated liquid or plastic material is poured into a mold or onto a substrate with little or no pressure applied; the substance cools, solidifies, and the formed object is removed.

Casting Strains

Strains resulting from internal stresses created during cooling of a casting.

Casting, Machine (verb)

Process of casting by machine.

Casting, Open Sand (noun)

Casting poured into an uncovered mold.


Welding one casting to another to form a complete unit. See Fabrication.

Cast-Weld Assembly

Welding one casting to another to form a complete assembly.


The formation and collapse of cavities or bubbles within a liquid.

Cavity, Mold Or Die

Impression or impressions in a mold or die that give the casting its shape. See Casting (noun).



Mineral substances in finely divided form, which are hardened through chemical reaction or crystallization. A common one is Portland cement.

Cement Molding

Process in which the sand bonding agent is a type of portland cement that develops high strength early in the hardening stage. Approximately 13 pounds of cement, 6 pounds of water, and 100 pounds of clayfree sand are mixed together. This mixture must be used within 3 to 4 hours. Molds are air dried for 72 hours before use.

Cement, Refractory

Highly refractory material in paste or dry form, ready to be mixed with water which may be used as a mortar, a patching material, or to form a complete lining in a furnace or other unit where high temperatures are encountered.


Process of introducing elements into the outer layer of metal objects by means of high-temperature diffusion.


A hard brittle, crystalline compound of iron and carbon commonly known as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical structure, Fe3C. Cementite is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure.

Centrifugal Casting (verb)

Process of filling molds by pouring the metal into a sand or metal mold revolving about either its horizontal or vertical axis, or pouring the metal into a mold that subsequently is revolved before solidification of the metal is complete. Molten metal is moved from the center of the mold to the periphery by centrifugal action.

Centrifugal Casting (noun)

Casting made in molds which are rotating so as to produce a centrifugal force in the molten metal. See Casting.

Ceramic Mold

Mold in which the refractory and binder are such that when fired at high temperature, a rigid structure is formed. Mold can be made in a flask or in the form of a shell. See Binder, Flask, Mold.


Abbreviation for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act. 1980.


Substance derived principally from corn flour, which is added to the core and molding sands to improve their properties for casting production. See Core, Molding Sands.


Metallic element, malleable and ductile, most abundant of rare-earth group. Atomic weigh 140.13, sp. Gr. 7.04, hardness (Mohs) about 2, melting point 640°C. Has exceptionally strong affinity for oxygen, sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, etc.


See Inclusions.

Chalk Test

Method of crack detection which consists of applying a penetrating liquid to the part, removing the excess from the surface which is then coated with whiting or chalk. After a short time the penetrant seeps out of the cracks into the whiting, causing an appreciable difference in whiteness.


Breaking or beveling the sharp edge or angle formed by two faces of a piece of wood or other material.


Coarsely graded refractory material prepared from calcined clay and ground firebrick mulled with raw clay, used in steel foundries.


Metal supports or spacers used in molds to maintain the cores, or parts of a mold, which are not self-supporting. Chaplets maintain these dimensions during the casting process, they then become part of the casting itself as the molten metal solidifies around the chaplet and fuses it into the finished casting.

Charcoal (Pig) Iron

Pig iron reduced in a blast furnace, using charcoal as the fuel. See Blast Furnace.



A given weight of metal introduced into the furnace. See Blast Furnace.

Charging Crane

System for charging the melting furnace with a crane.

Charging Door

Opening through which the furnace is charged.

Charging Floor

Floor from which the furnace is charged.

Charging Machine

Machine for charging the furnace, particularly the open hearth.

Charpy Impact Test

A pendulum type of impact test which a specimen, supported at both ends as a simple beam, is broken by the impact of the falling pendulum. Energy absorbed in breaking the specimen, as determined by the decreased rise of the pendulum, is a measure of the impact strength of the metal. See Brinell Hardness Test.


Intermediate sections of a flask inserted between cope and drag. Necessitated by difficulty in molding unusual shapes, or in cases where more than one parting line is required.

Chicken Wire Cracks

See Craze Crack.

Chill (External)

Metal, graphite or carbon blocks that are incorporated into the mold or core to locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification and reduce shrinkage defects. See Directional Solidification, Solidification.

Chill (Internal)

A metallic device / insert in molds or cores at the surface of a casting or within the mold to increase the rate of heat removal, include directional solidification and reduce shrinkage defects. The internal chill may then become a part of the casting. See Casting, Core, Mold.

Chill (noun)

A device used to cool an isolated area of a mold.

Chill (verb)

To cool rapidly.

Chill Coating

A material applied to metal chills to prevent oxidation or other deterioration of the surface which might result in blows when molten metal comes in contact with the chills.

Chill Coils

Chills made of steel wire formed into helical coils or spirals.

Chill Nails

Chills in the form of nails.

Chill Test

Method of determining the suitability of a gray iron for specific castings through its chilling tendency, as measured from the tip of a wedge-shaped test bar.

Chill Zone

Area of a casting in which chilling occurs, as long sharp edges or exterior corners.

Chilled Iron

Cast iron poured against a chill to produce a hard, un-machinable surface.

Chip (verb)

To remove extraneous metal from a casting with hand or pneumatically operated chisels.


A refining or degasification process, wherein dry chlorine gas is passed through molten aluminum-base and magnesium-base alloys to remove entrapped oxides and dissolved gases.



Restriction in the gating system that controls the flow rate of metal into the mold cavity.  See Cavity, Mold Cavity.

Choke or Primary Choke

The part of the gating system that most restricts or regulates the flow of metal into the mold cavity. See Cavity, Mold Cavity.


A 90Ni - 10Cr alloy used in thermocouples.


FeCr2O4. Specialty sand used in molding, has a similar effect to chills.


Alloying element used as a carbide stabilizer. See Ferrochromium.

Chvorinov's Rule

A rule which states that solidification time is proportional to the square of the volume of the metal and inversely proportional to the square of the surface area, or t (solidification time)=KV2/SA2.


A device for holding parts of a mold, flask, corebox, etc., together.


Indentation on a casting surface due to displacement of sand in the mold.


A casting process in which metal fills the mold through the drag by application of a vacuum. See Drag.

Clay Wash

Clay and water mixed to a creamy consistency.

Clay, Refractory

A clay which, in addition to its capability of resisting high temperatures, also possesses strong bonding power.


Process of removing sand, surface blemishes, runners, risers, flash, surplus metal, and sand etc., from the exterior and interior surfaces of castings. Includes degating, tumbling or abrasive blasting, grinding off gate stubs, etc. See Runners, Risers, Flash, Surplus Metal, and Sand.

Close Over

The operation of lowering a part of the mold over some projecting portion such as a core.


Abbreviation for Coordinate Measuring Machine.

Computerized Numerical Control (CNC)

The use of computers and software to control metal cutting machines. Cutting tool paths can be generated directly from CAD produced part drawings.  See Computer Aided Design (CAD).


Agglomeration of fine particles into a mass. Also growth of particles of a dispersed phase by solution and reprecipitation. Also grain growth by absorption of adjacent undistorted grains.


Blue-white metal, melting at 2,715°F (1,492°C), used in very hard alloy such as stellite, and a binder in carbide cutting tools. See Alloy, Stellite.

Cobalt 60

A radioactive isotope of the element cobalt used in radiographic examinations of castings, and for determining height of molten metal in cupola well.  It is aslo used in used in medical and industrial radiography. See Cupola.

Cocoon Process

A method of protecting metal parts by spraying on a cover of plastic filaments.

Code Holes

The information holes in perforated tape, as opposed to feed or sprocket holes.

Coefficient of Expansion

Unit increase in size resulting from a unit increase in temperature; measured in inches per inch per degree Fahrenheit (in/in/1/2°F) or in millimeter per millimeter per degree Celsius (mm/mm/1/2°C).


Coercive Force

The magnetizing force that must be applied in the direction opposite to that of the previous magnetizing force in order to remove residual magnetism; thus, an indicator of the strength of magnetically hard materials.


The force by which like particles are held together. It varies with different metals and depends upon molecular arrangement due to heat treatment.


A process of straightening and sizing castings by die pressing. See Castings.


Coal derivative resulting from the distillation of bituminous coal in the absence of air. The distillation process removes all of the volatile material from the coal so it can be used as a very intense source of fuel in cupola melting. Source of some carbon found in iron. 

Coke Bed

First layer of coke placed in the cupola. Also the coke used as the foundation in constructing a large mold in a flask or pit.

Coke Breeze

Fines from coke screening, used in blacking mixes after grinding; also briquetted for cupola use.

Coke Furnace

Type of pot or crucible furnace using coke as the fuel. See Coke, Crucible Furnace.

Coke Porosity

The percentage volume of cell space in coke.

Coke, Beehive

Coke produced from a bituminous coal by the beehive process where heat for the coking process comes from a partial combustion of the coke. Generally characterized by an elongate stringy structure.

Coke, By-Product

Coke produced from bituminous coal in airtight code ovens where heat for coking process is externally applied. Generally more uniform in size than beehive coke, and usually ball or cube shape.

Coke, Petroleum

Residue left from the distillation of petroleum crude, used as a carbon raiser.


Cold Blast Pig Iron

Pig iron produced in a blast furnace without the used of the heated air blast. See Pig Iron.

Cold Box Process

A rapid coremaking process which does not require application of heat to cure the cores. Hardening of the cores is accomplished by chemical reaction rather than by conventional baking. A phenolic resin is added to the sand used to make the core. This resin reacts chemically when exposed to an accelerator, typically an active organic gas, and hardens very quickly, forming an organic bond in the core sand. This reaction occurs at room temperature and does not require special coreboxes or equipment. Additionally, since the bond is organic, the sand collapses readily during shakeout and can be recovered easily from the casting.

Cold Chamber Machine

A diecasting machine where the metal chamber and plunger are not immersed in hot metal.

Cold Chamber, Club Sandwich, Two-Faced, Three-Piece Die

A diecasting die in which two different pieces are cast in two widely separated cavities.

Cold Cracking

Cracks in cold or nearly cold metal due to excessive internal stress caused by contraction. Often brought about when the mold is to hard or casting is of unsuitable design.

Cold Lap

Wrinkled markings on the surface of an ingot or casting from incipient freezing of the surface. See Ingot, Casting.

Cold Setting Binders

Term used to describe any binder that will harden the core sufficiently at room temperature so core can be removed from its box without distortion; commonly used in reference to oil-oxygen type binders. See Binder.

Cold Setting Process

An of several systems for bonding mold or core aggregates by means of organic binders, relying upon the use of catalysts rather than heat for polymerization (setting).

Cold Short

A characteristic of metals that are brittle at ordinary or low temperatures.

Cold Shortness

Brittleness when metal is at a low temperature.

Cold Shot

Small globule of metal embedded in but not entirely fused with the casting.

Cold Shut

A surface imperfection due to unsatisfactory fusion of metal. It is caused by insufficient fluidity, low pouring temperature, improper choice of alloy, or inadequate runner systems. The location where two streams of metal do not unite thoroughly in a casting. It may have the appearance of a crack or seam with smooth, rounded edges. Also see Cold Lap.

Cold Work

Plastic deformation of a metal at room temperature. Substantial increases in strength and hardness may occur.

Cold-Box Process

Any core binder process that uses a gas or vaporized catalyst to cure a coated sand while it is in contact with the core box at room temperature.


Tendency of a sand mixture to break down under conditions of casting.

Collapsible Sprue

A sprue pattern of flexible material, or of spring-tube design, used in squeeze-molding of plated patterns, and incorporating a pouring cup. See Pattern, Sprue, Pouring.


A device for confining the elements of a beam of radiation within an assigned solid angle.

Colloidal Clay

Finely divided clay of montmorillonite, kaolinite, or illite class; prepared for foundry purposes as in sand bonding.


Finely divided material, less than 0.5 micron, 0.00002 in., in size, gelatinous, highly absorbent, and sticky when moistened.

Colloids, Colloidal Material

Finely divided material less than 0.5 micron, 0.00002 in., in size, such as albumin, glue, starch, gelatin, and bentonite.

Coloimetric Analysis

Determining the amount of an element in a solution by measuring the intrinsic color.

Color Etching

A micro-etch resulting from the formation of a thin film of a definite compound of the metal.

Columnar Structure

Coarse structure of parallel columns of grains caused by highly directional solidification resulting from sharp thermal gradients.

Combination Die

A die-casting die having two or more cavities of dissimilar parts. See Multiple-Cavity Die.


Combined Carbon

The carbon in iron or steel combined with other elements and therefore not in the free state as graphite or temper carbon.

Combined Water

That water in mineral matter which is chemically combined and driven off only at temperatures above 231°F (111°C).


Materials capable of combustion; inflammable.


Chemical change as a result of the combination of the combustible constituents of the fuel with oxygen, producing heat.

Combustion Chamber

Space in furnace where combustion of gaseous products from fuel takes place.

Combustion Efficiency

The amount of heat usefully available divided by the maximum amount which can be liberated by combustion; usually expressed in percentage.

Comfort Zone (Average)

The range of effective temperature over which the majority (50% or more) of adults feel comfortable.


A rust-proofing process for steel.

Compacted Graphite Iron

An iron with with elongated graphite particles with rounded edges and roughened surfaces. It possesses characteristics of both gray and ductile iron. See Gray Iron, Ductile Iron.

Composite Construction

Welding a steel casting to a rolled or forged steel object or to another casting. See Cast-Weld.

Compression Test

Imposing a dead load on a small cylindrical test piece to determine compressive strength, expressed in pounds per square inch.

Compressive Strength

The maximum compressive strength which a material is capable of developing.


Device for providing gas under pressure. Usually connotes high pressures and not so high volume.

Compressive Strength (Yield)

The maximum stress in compression that can be withstood without plastic deformation or failure.

Contact Cement

Patternmaking bonding technique, in which liquid bonding agent is painted on both surfaces to be joined and allowed to dry. These dry surfaces placed in contact adhere firmly.

Condensing Rings

A special form of chill used for cast iron to produce a dense but graphite structure. See Cast Iron.


The transmission of heat, sound, etc. by the transferring of energy from one particle to another.


The quality or power of conducting or transmitting heat, electricity, etc.

Conductivity (Thermal)

The quantity of heat that flows through a material measured in heat units per unit time per unit of cross-sectioned area per unit of length, (electrical) the quantity of electricity that is transferred through a material of know cross-section and length.

Connor Gate (Runner) (Lip feeder)

A runner in which the feed block overlaps the casting by 1/16 in. (1.6 mm). See Runner.

Constant Intensity Pyrometer

Use of a comparison lamp filament's glow to estimate metal temperature.


An alloy of nickel and copper use in thermocouples.


A micrographically distinguishable part of an alloy or mixture.

Consumer's Risk

The risk the consumer runs of accepting lots of quality p2. See P2.


Contact Printing (Ink Print)

A method of recording details of a macroetched structure. See Sulfur Prints.


The presence of small percentages of deleterious elements in an alloy adversely affecting the alloy's mechanical properties and/or casting soundness.

Continous Tapping

A furnace or holding ladle that is made of discharge molten metal continuously during normal operation.

Continuous Annealing Furnace

Furnace in which castings are annealed or heat treated by being passed through different zones kept at constant temperatures. See Annealing.

Continuous Desulfurization

A process of removing sulfur from molten ferrous alloys on a continuous basis.

Continuous Mixer

Used to continuously mix chemically bonded sand.

Continuous Phase

The phase that forms the matrix or background in which the other phases are present as isolated units.

Controlled Area

A defined area in which the occupational exposure of personnel to radiation or to radioactive material is under the supervision of an individual in charge of radiation protection.


Decrease in size or volume due to cooling of the metal after it is poured. Shrinkage is the term applied to the decrease in volume of a metal from liquid to solid stage. Contraction immediately follows shrinkage.

Contraction Cracks

Cracks formed by restriction of the metal while contracting in the mold; may occur just after solidification, called a hot tear, or a short time after the casting has been removed from the mold. See Hot Tea.

Contraction Rule

See Shrinkage, Patternmaker's.

Controlled Atmosphere

Any gas or mixture of gases that prevents or retards oxidation and decarburization.

Controlled Cooling

Process by which a metal object is cooled from an elevated temperature in a predetermined manner of cooling to avoid hardening, cracking, or internal damage.


The motion resulting in a fluid from the differences in density. In heat transmission, this meaning has been extended to include both forced and natural motion or circulation.


Vessel for refining molten metal by blowing a gas, usually air, through it. Used in making steel from molten cast iron and in refining copper. See Cast Iron.

Conver, Vibratory

A materials-handling device used usually with shakeout operations, to help clean sand from the castings as they are moved from one place to another in the foundry and as a feeding device to regulate materials flow. Operations with vibrational energy.


A mechanical apparatus for carrying or transporting materials from place to place. Types include apron, belt, chain, gravity, roller, monorail, overhead, pneumatic, vibrating, etc.

Conveyor Belt

A continuously moving belt used in an automated or semiautomatic foundry to move materials from one station to another. See Conveyor.

Conveyor Screw

Rotary worm-type blade used to move materials in automated core and mold making and other continuous sand-mixing operations.

Conveyor, Pallet

A materials-handling device that holds one or more molds and transports them from the molding station through pouring to shakeout. See Conveyor.

Conveyor, Pneumatic Tube

An air-tube means of moving materials from on place to another, primarily orders, light metal samples, and sand and other finely divided materials, as bentonite.

Conveyor, Roller

A line of conveyance in an automated or semiautomated foundry which employs a series of steel roller for moving objects.

Conveyor, Slat

A materials-handling device built on a continuous belt of metal slats that moves granular materials and castings throughout a foundry. See Conveyor.



The largest of three water coolers surrounding the cinder notch of a blast furnace.

Cooling Curve

A curve delineating the relationship between temperature and time during the cooling of a metal or alloy test specimen. Since most phase changes involve evolution or absorption of heat, there may be abrupt changes in the slope of the curve. See Cracking Strip.

Cooling Stress

Stresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling.

Cooling, Controlled

A process of cooling from an elevated temperature in a predetermined manner used to produce a desired microstructure to avoid hardening, cracking or internal damage.


The top half of a horizontally parted mold. The upper or topmost section of a flask, mold, or pattern. See Flask, Mold, Pattern.

Cope, False

Temporary cope used only in forming the parting and therefore not a part of the finished mold. See Cope.

Coping Out

The extension of sand of the cope downward into the drag, where it takes an impression of a pattern. See Drag.


For foundry applications, copper is meant to include all alloys containing 98% or more copper. Used for conductivity castings. Melting point 1,083°C (1,981.4°F).

Copper, Electrolytic

Copper produced by the electrolysis method.


One or more projecting courses of brick each projecting beyond the course below.


A bonded sand insert placed in the mold to form an undercut or hollow section in the casting which cannot be shaped by the pattern.  A core is frequently used to create openings and various shaped cavities in the casting. The shaped body of sand which forms interior of casting and also selected external features.

Core Arbor

An iron framework embedded in a large core to stiffen it and for convenience in handling.

Core Assembly

A complex core made from a number of cores or sections.

Core Barrel

Pipe-shaped device upon which a cylindrical core is formed.

Core Binder

Any material used to hold the grains of core sand together.

Core Blow

A gas pocket in a casting adjacent to a core cavity caused by entrapping gases from the core.

Core Blowing Machine

Machine which reams the core by blowing sand into the core box. See Core, Core Box.

Core Box

A mold in which a core is formed. A wood, metal or plastic box, whose cavity has the shape of the desired core which is to be made therein. See Core, Mold.

Core Box, Combination

Core box and core dryers from the same pattern. One half is used as a half core box and a core drier. See Core Box, Pattern.

Core Branch

Part of a core assembly. See Core Assembly.

Core Breaker

A machine for crushing cores or for removing cores from castings.

Core Cavity

The interior form of a core box that gives shape to the core. Also, the cavity produced in a casting by use of a core. See Core Box.

Core Collapsibility

The rate of disintegration of the core at elevated temperature.

Core Compound

A commercial mixture used as a binder in core sand. See Binder, Core Sand.

Core Crab

An iron framework embedded in a large core to stiffen it and for convenience in handling.

Core Crack

Appears in a casting after solidification and cooling due to excessive strain generally resulting from nonuniform cooling.


Core Density

Either the permeability of core or the weight per unit volume.

Core Driers or Dryers

Supports used to hold cares in shape while being baked; constructed from metals or sand for conventional baking, or from plastic material for use with dielectric core-baking equipment. See Dielectric Baking.

Core Extruder

A special shell-core-making machine that produces a continuous length of cores, usually of cylindrical cross-section.

Core Filler

Material used in place of sand in the interiors of large cores -coke, cinder, sawdust, etc., usually added to aid collapsibility.

Core Fin

A casting defect, a depression in the casting caused by a fin on the core that was not removed before the core was set, or by paste that has oozed out from between the joints.

Core Float

A casting defect caused by core movement towards the cope surface of the mold, as a result of core buoyancy in liquid steel, resulting in a deviation from the intended wall thickness.

Core Frame

Frame of skeleton construction used instead of a complete core box in forming intermediate and large cores. See Core Box.

Core Grinder

Machine for grinding a taper on the end of a cylindrical core or to grind a core to a specified dimension, usually flat face.

Core Gum

A pitch material used as a core binder. See Core Binder.

Core Hardness

The ability of a core to resist scratching or abrasion.

Core Jig (Fixture)

Device in which a number of cores are assembled outside the mold, then used to locate the assembly in the proper position in the mold.

Core Knockout Machine

A mechanical device for removing cores from castings. See Core, Casting.

Core Lightener

A core material of any size and shape used to lighten pattern castings and match plates.

Core Machine

Machine for making cores. See Core.

Core Maker

A core seat shaped or arranged that the core will register correctly in the mold; also termed locator, indicator, register, telltale. A core maker is also a person who makes cores.

Core Mud

A daubing mixture used to correct defect in cores. See Core.

Core Oil

Linseed-base or other oil used as a core binder. See Core Binder.

Core Oven

An oven for baking cores.

Core Paste

Material in paste form used as an adhesive to join sectional cores.

Core Plate

A plate or board made of metal or heat-resisting material on which certain types of cores are baked.

Core Print

Projections on a pattern that form and locate cores in a mold. A core print is also a projection on the core or an area in the mold for same purpose.

Core Refractiveness

The ability of a core to resist breakdown when exposed to heat.

Core Rod

Steel rods imbedded in a core used to reinforce the core and strengthen it. See Core.


Core Sand

Sand for making cores to which a binding material has been added to obtain good cohesion and permeability after drying. Core sand is usually low in clays.

Core Sand Mixer

Equipment in which cores are made. See Core.

Core Setter

An operator or machine for placing cores in molds.

Core Setting Jig

A device used to help set and position a core into the mold.

Core Shift

A dfect resulting from the movement of the core from its proper position in the mold cavity. A variation from specified dimensions of a cored section due to a change in position of the core or misalignment of cores in assembling.

Core Shooter

A device using low air pressure to fluidize the sand mix which is released quickly in such a way as to force it into a core box. See Core Box.

Core Spindle

A shaft on which a core barrel is rotated in making cylindrical cores.

Core Sprayer

A device for spraying a coating on cores. See Core.

Core Stickle Template (Sweep)

Device of wood or metal to give shape to certain types of cores or molds.

Core Strainer (Strainer Tub)

Baked sand or refractory disc with uniform size holes through its thickness used to control the discharge of metal from pouring basins into sprues or to regulate the flow of metal in gates systems of molds; also to prevent entrance of dross or slag into the mold cavity.

Core Truck

Truck or carriage used for transporting cores.

Core Vents

A wax product, round or oval in form, used to form the vent passage in a core. Also refers to a metal screen or slotted piece used to form the vent passage in the corebox employed in a core blowing machine.

Core Wash

A suspension of a refractory material applied to cores and dried. Intended to improve the surface finish of the casting. A refractory coating for a core.

Core Wires Or Rolls

See Core Rod.

Core, Ram-Up

Core attached to the pattern and rammed up in the mold, where it remains when the pattern is withdrawn.

Core-Baking Dielectric

Heating cores to baking temperatures by means of high-frequency dielectric equipment; particularly adapted to thermo-setting resin core binders. See Core, Dielectric Baking.


See Core Box.

Coreless Induction Furnace

See Induction Furnace.

Core-Making Machine

A device to make cores. See Core.


A craftsman skilled in the production of cores for foundry use.


A projection on a pattern which leaves an impression in the mold for supporting the core. See Core, Pattern.

Corer, Sag

A decrease in the height of a core, usually accompanied by an increase in width, as a result of insufficient green strength of the sand to support its own weight.


Department of the foundry in which cores are made.


Coring (Metallurgical)

Variable composition due to the solidification characteristics of an alloy. Typically these compositional differences occur on a micro scale, the distances between compositional extremes being controlled by the solidification structure of the alloy.

Coring Up

Placement of cores chills, and chaplets in mold halves before closing the mold. See Chaplets.

Cornerslick (inside and outside corners)

A molder's tool used for repairing and slicking the sand in molds. Used primarily on dry sand and loam.

Corrective Effective Temperature Chart

A chart on which information can be plotted resulting in an adjustment temperature reading more indicative of human comfort.


Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere, moisture or other agents. A chemical attack of furnace linings by gases, slags, ashes or other fluxes occurring in various melting practices.

Corrosion Index

A number expressing the maximum depth in mils to which corrosion would penetrate in one year on the basis of a linear extrapolation of the penetration occurring during the lifetime of a given test or service.

Corrosion Wear

Wear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment is significant.


Native alumna, or aluminum oxide, Al2O3, occurring as rhombohedral crystals and also in masses and variously colored grains. Applied specifically to nontransparent kinds used as abrasives. It is hardest mineral except the diamond. Corundum and its artificial counterparts are abrasives especially suited to the grinding of metals.


Producing a black, rust-resisting surface on iron and steel by boiling for some hours in water containing phosphoric acid and iron filings.

Cottrell Process

An electrostatic method of removing solid particles from gases.

Count rate meter

A device which gives a continuous indication of the average rate of ionizing events.


Two dissimilar conductors in electrical contact. An electromotive force in created under proper electrolytic influences or during heating.


Alternate layers of material in a pattern, or brickwork.


A protective blanket laid on a melt to exclude oxidizing atmosphere and in the case of magnesium to prevent its igniting. Neutral covers simply protect metal from atmosphere; reacting covers contain an agent such as a deoxidizer.

Cover Core

A core set in place during the ramming of a mold to cover and complete a cavity partly formed by the withdrawal of a loose part of the pattern. Also used to form part or all of the cope surface of the mold cavity. A core placed over another core to create a flat parting line. See Core, Mold Cavity, Pattern.

Cover Half

In Die casting, the stationary half of the die.


See Core Crab.

Crack, Hot

Developed in a casting before it has cooled completely, and usually due to some part of the mold restraining solid contraction of the metal. See Tear, Hot Tear.

Crack, Hot Tear

A rupture occurring in a casting at or just below the solidifying temperature by a pulling apart of the soft metal, caused by thermal contraction stresses. See Quench Crack.

Cracking Strip

A fin of metal molded on the surface of a casting to prevent cracking. See Fin, Cooling Curve.



A machine for lifting heavy weights; may be hand or power operated. Type include electric, gantry, jib, monorail, etc.

Crane, Gantry

A bridge carrying a traveling crane and supported by a pair of trestles running on parallel tracks.

Crane, Jib

A crane suspended from a jib.

Crane, Mobile

A crane supported on structure that rolls on wheels; may be moved manually or by its own power.

Crane, Wall Jib

A jib crane mounted on a wall rather than on an overhead beam.

Craze Crack (Crazing)

Minute crack on ceramic or refractory surface caused by thermal or mechanical shock.

Crazing (Worming)

A defect found in pack-hardened tools, manifested in surface markings.


Time rate of deformation continuing under stress intensities well within the yield point, proportional limit, or the apparent elastic limit for the temperature.

Creep Limit

The maximum stress that will result in creep at a rate lower than an assigned rate. See Creep.


Network of cast iron used to support the cope when no cope flask is used.


Simplest crystallographic form of SiO2.

Critical Cooling Rate

The minimum rate of continuous cooling just enough to prevent undesired transformations.

Critical Points (Temperatures)

Temperatures at which changes in the phase of a metal talk place, and are determined by the liberation of heat when the metal is cooled and by the absorption of heat when the metal is heated, resulting in halts or arrests on cooling and heating curves.

Critical Shear Stress

The shear stress required to cause slip in a single crystal, in a designated slip direction on a given slip plane. Referred to as the critical resolved shear stress if the shear stress reaches a threshold level.

Critical Strain

A term used in stress corrosion cracking tests to indicate the maximum strain rate necessary to promote stress corrosion cracks.

Croning Process (C Process, Cronizing)

A casting process name after its German developer Johannes Croning. It is a precision production process using a phenol formaldehyde resin binder. See Shell Molding.

Cross Gate

See Runner.

Cross Section

A view of the interior of an object that is represented as being cut in two, the cut surface presenting the cross section of the object.


Wood or metal bar placed in a flask to give greater anchorage to the sand than is afforded by its four walls.


Furnace roof, especially when dome-shaped; highest point of an arch.


A ceramic pot or receptacle made of materials such as graphite or silicon carbide, with relatively high thermal conductivity, bonded with clay or carbon, and used in melting metals; sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron, steel, or wrought steel. The name derives from the cross, the Crux, with which ancient alchemists adorned it. See Cast Iron.

Crucible Furnace

A furnace fired with coke, oil, gas, or electricity in which metals are melted in a refractory crucible. See Coke, Crucible.

Crucible Zone

The zone in the cupola between the bottom and the tuyere. See Cupola, Tuyere.



A casting defect, such as buckling or breaking, of a section of mold due to incorrect register when closing. Also, an indentation in the casting surface due to displacement of sand in the mold when the mold is closed.

Crush Strip Or Bead

An indentation in the parting line of a pattern plate which ensures that cope and drag have good contact by producing a ridge of sand which crushes against the other surface of the mold or core.


The pushing out of shape of core or mold when two parts of the mold do not fit properly.


A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms, ions, or molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional repetitive pattern.

Crystal Analysis

Determination of crystal structure.

Crystal Lattice

The way atoms are arranged in a crystal. Spacewise, there are only 14 different lattices.

Crystalline Fracture

Fracture of a brittle metal, showing definite crystal faces in the fractured surface.


Act or process of forming crystals or bodies formed by element or compounds solidifying so they are bounded by plane surfaces, symmetrically arranged, and are the external expressions of definite internal structure.

Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD)

Illnesses that develop gradually over time and involve disorders of the soft tissues of the body. Caused or aggravated by repeatedly or constantly applied excessive forces, awkward postures, or highly repetitive movements of the body.


A cylindrical straight shaft furnace usually lined with refractories, for melting metal in direct contact with coke by forcing air under pressure through openings near its base. Vertical shaft furnace lined with refractories used to produce cast iron by high temperature melting of metallic and mineral charge materials. See Tuyere.

Cupola Blower

A machine which compresses a large volume of air at low pressure for operation of the cupola.

Cupola Dust Arrester

A device attached to the stack of a cupola which removes dust and sparks for the outgoing gases. See Cupola.

Cupola, Basic

Cupola with refractory lining which has a basic reaction, usually magnesite, and is operated with slags high in lime. Lining may be neutral material like carbon, used with high lime slags. See Cupola, Slag.

Cupola, Hot Blast

Cupola in which the air blast is heated to temperatures from 400° to 1,000°F.

Cupola, Water-Cooled

Cupola in which the melting zone and tuyeres are cooled with water. Cooling of melting zone may be internal through jackets or steel tubing under the refractory lining. Cooling is also accomplished externally by water flowing down the outer shell. See Cupola.


To harden.

Curing Time (No Bake)

That period of time needed before a sand mass reaches maximum hardness.


Defect in a casting resulting from erosion of the sand by metal flowing over the mold or cored surface. See Casting.

Cutoff Machines, Abrasive

A machine using a thin abrasive wheel and employed in cutting off gates and risers from casting or in similar operations. See Abrasive.


Defects in castings resulting from erosion of the sand by the molten metal pouring over the mold or core surface. See Casting.

Cutter, Gate

A piece of sheet metal or other tool for removing a portion of the sand in a mold to form the gate or metal entrance into the casting cavity. A scoop or other form of cutting gates in the mold. See Gate.

Cutter, Sprue

A piece of metal tubing or other tool used to remove a portion of the sand from a mold to form the sprue or passage from the exterior of the mold to the gate. Also a machine used for shearing sprues and gates from castings. See Gate, Sprue.

Cutting Wheel

The plastic discs impregnated with an abrasive for cutting ceramics and metals. Used on abrasive cutoff machines.

Cyclone (Centrifugal Collector)

In air pollution control, a controlled descending vortex created to spiral objectionable gases and dust to the bottom of a collector core.

Cyclonic Scrubber

In air pollution control, radial liquid (usually water) sprays introduced into cyclones to facilitate collection of particles.


A device for accelerating charged particles to high energies by means of an alternating electric field between electrodes placed in a constant magnetic field.


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Atlas Foundry Company, Inc.
601 N. Henderson Avenue
Marion, IN 46952-3348
Telephone: (765) 662-2525 • Fax: (765) 662-2902
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